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This tutorial is going to be off-topic compared to the others on the website. It was born out of a question regarding how to send personalized e-mails to several people on a list, and I thought it could be useful to post a tutorial online. This will help people interested …

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Copying objects in Python seems like a trivial task, but it can have unexpected implications in your programs. Copying data may be achieved by either duplicating the data or by storing references to the objects, having a much lower impact on the memory. In this article, we are going to …

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There is a common pattern when programming that is opening a resource, doing something with it and closing it. This is what you normally do with a file, a network connection or a device. Python offers you a command to handle this pattern: the 'with' context manager. In this article …

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Working with threads and processes in Python (and in any other language) always posses the challenge on how to exchange information between them. We are not talking about parallelizing code in a traditional way, where an expensive computation is spread through different cores, but rather being able to share the …

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PyNTA is a program that aims at bridging the gap between data acquisition and analysis for experiments of nanoparticle tracking. PyNTA is my first public release of a package on PyPI, the Python repository. It is a desktop application that can be used to record images from a camera, track …

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In this tutorial, we are going to build a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to acquire images from your webcam. We are going to use OpenCV to quickly acquire an image from your camera and PyQt5 to build the user interface. You may find a lot of tutorials online on how …

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To understand hashable objects in Python, it is important to review what a hash table is. Following the article on Wikipedia, a hash table is a data structure that can map keys to values and that implements a hash function to compute the index to an array of buckets or …

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We have seen how to leverage the differences between mutable and immutable objects and what happens when you use mutable types as default function arguments. However, we haven't discussed what happens when you use mutable types as default attributes of classes.

Default values for attributes can be defined in different …

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Broadly speaking, Python variables belong to one of two types: mutable and immutable. We have discussed this yesterday, in the Introduction To Mutable and Immutable Data Types. The first one refers to those elements that can be changed without the need of creating a new one, while the latter refers …

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People who start programming in Python quickly stumble upon the existence of lists and tuples. They are defined in a similar way, they look the same. Sometimes they are even used interchangeably. The obvious question is, therefore, why do you have two different types of elements for the same goal …

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This article is part of a series of articles relating to data storage with Python. The other articles are:

Using databases for storing data may sound much more complicated …

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This article is part of a series of articles relating to data storage with Python. The other articles are:

Last week we have seen how to store data into …

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